Earliest recorded description of Pertussis "whooping cough" by Guillanne de Baillon
First pertussis vaccine developed by Bordet/Gengou Pasteur Institute in Brussels
Six US Manufacturers of Pertussis Vaccine by 1914
I.G. Farben formed
vaccine was removed from this list in 1931 because of equivocal efficacy results, but was readmitted in 1944 (se page 6)
World War 2
DDT was first synthesized in 1874. However, its insecticidal properties were not known until 1942. Then, Paul Muller, who was a chemist at the Swiss company J. P. Geigy (now called Novartis), and who was engaged in research to find new insecticides to protect crop plants, demonstrated that spraying species of flies, gnats, and the Colorado beetle with DDT was lethal. He also demonstrated that the killing was due to the poisoning of the insect’s nervous system. His accomplishments were recognized by the awarding of the 1948 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.
Aug 6-9 1945
Atomic Bombs Hiroshima & Nagasaki
Feb 27 1950
The first child was vaccinated with the Koprowski vaccine on February 27, 1950, and within ten years it was used on four continents. Albert Sabin's polio vaccination with attenuated live polioviruses was developed from viral material that Sabin had received from Koprowski.
The worst recorded polio epidemic in U.S. history occurred with 57,628 reported cases. See Eddy wiki
Apr 12 1955
The first polio vaccine was licensed -- an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) pioneered by Dr. Jonas Salk.
Apr 23 1955
May 6 1955
NIH announced to the press that the national polio vaccination program would be postponed until further notice.
Salk polio vax reached 90 countries, Eddy began to conduct safety studies on polio vaccines, which used viruses grown in monkey kidney cells. In 1961, Eddy showed that an extract of rhesus monkey kidney cells used in the creation of the polio vaccine caused tumors in newborn hamsters. Specifically, 109 of 154 mice injected with the extract showed signs of tumor growth. The extracts of these neoplasms were transplanted into a new group of mice where similar tumor growth was observed. Tumor extract transplants occurred for 5 generations of mice, where the last group all showed tumor growth. In 1962, Eddy presented evidence that the oncological agent present in the rhesus monkey kidney cell serum was capable of inducing histologically similar tumors under the same conditions as SV40, and that these tumors showed different properties than the SE polyoma virus, which was the only other biological material known to be capable of inducing tumors in almost all hamsters injected as newborns. Similar to SV40, rhesus monkey kidney cell extracts remained infectious after passage through filters, and similar levels of exposure to diethyl ether, heat, and storage at -70 °C. Eddy also provided evidence that the extracts were inhibited (tumors would not develop) under conditions that also inhibited SV40 tumor development. This includes inhibition in animals that received rhesus monkey kidney cell extracts combined with anti-SV40 rabbit serum. Given the preponderance of evidence, this paper drew the conclusion that the oncological agent in the rhesus monkey kidney cell extracts were identical to the SV40 virus.
Sabin's Polio vax replaces Salk's
Ban on DDT's agricultural use in the United States
June 1979, the California Department of Health Services was permitted to use DDT to suppress flea vectors of bubonic plague.
DDT continued to be produced in the United States for foreign markets until 1985, when over 300 tons were exported. ===International usage restrictions=== In the 1970s and 1980s, agricultural use was banned in most developed countries, beginning with Hungary in 1968, followed by Norway and Sweden in 1970, West Germany and the United States in 1972, but not in the United Kingdom until 1984.
By 1991, total bans, including for disease control, were in place in at least 26 countries; for example, Cuba in 1970, the US in the 1980s, Singapore in 1984, Chile in 1985, and the Republic of Korea in 1986. The Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, which took effect in 2004, put a global ban on several persistent organic pollutants, and restricted DDT use to vector control.